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1550nm InP on Si lasers for telecommunication applications

Research Area: Integrated lasers and LEDs , Heterogeneous integration technology for silicon photonics , Silicon photonics for telecom, datacom and interconnect

Main Researcher: Shahram Keyvaninia

The heterogeneous integration of III-V semiconductors on silicon using a wafer bonding technique is currently the most relevant solution for the fabrication of laser sources on silicon. Such integration allows creating integrated optical devices, which take the best of both worlds: III-V semiconductors for efficient light emission and amplification and silicon for its low loss and high index contrast waveguiding. In order to densely integrate the III–V semiconductor with the silicon waveguide circuits, in our group mainly the DVS-BCB adhesive bonding technique is used and is actively reported in state-of-the-art hybrid amplifiers and lasers [1]. In this approach, unstructured InP-based dies are bonded, epitaxial layers down, on an SOI waveguide circuit wafer, after which the InP growth substrate is removed and the III–V epitaxial film is processed. The design space for hybrid InP/SOI devices is large and in particular the coupling between the optical mode in the top active III–V waveguide and that in the bottom passive SOI waveguide plays an important role. In literature, two main solutions are reported. In the first approach, based on evanescent coupling, the bulk of the optical mode (~70%) in the III-V/silicon amplifier waveguide is confined within the Si waveguide [2]. Typically, the silicon waveguide thickness is larger than 500 nm and the III–V effective waveguide width is large (> 4 µm).

Figure1 : (a) Three-dimensional view of the coupling structure in the gain section with representative mode profiles in two cross-sections; (b) detailed top view of the gain structure.
Figure1 : (a) Three-dimensional view of the coupling structure in the gain section with representative mode profiles in two cross-sections; (b) detailed top view of the gain structure.

In the second type of devices, the optical mode is mostly confined in the III-V material. In this case, coupling between the III–V and silicon waveguide is realized by adiabatically tapering the silicon and III-V waveguide. This requires that the thickness of the bonding layer is thin enough (<100 nm) to have high coupling efficiency (Figure 1).
Using a 400 nm thick silicon waveguide relaxes the requirements on the III-V taper tip width: a width of 500nm is sufficient to achieve a high efficiency and low reflection power transfer from the III-V laser mesa to the silicon waveguide. To achieve such that narrow taper structures in the active region which are electrically pumped, two technologies (one based on e-beam lithography (collaboration with TU/e) and one based on selective wet etching) were developed. This wet etching technique allowed creating undercut structures in the spot-size converter, which again relaxed the lithography requirements in the definition of the III-V spotsize converter, which was realized using 300 nm UV contact lithography.


Figure 2: (a) SEM picture of a III–V waveguide and taper tip defined with e-beam lithography; (b) SEM picture of a III–V taper tip and cross section for the III-V spot-size converter taper tip illustrating the 500 nm taper tip width close to the active core of the III-V waveguide defined with the developed wet etching process.

Several applications - especially for telecommunication- require single wavelength and wavelength tunable lasers. Several single wavelength lasers on a heterogeneous III-V/SOI photonics platform have been demonstrated, both based on distributed feedback (DFB), distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) and ring resonator geometries, in which the wavelength selective feedback elements were defined in the silicon waveguide layer.
As an example, a new heterogeneously integrated tunable laser [3] was fabricated on SOI, presenting several new features: narrow III–V waveguides in the range from 2 to 3µm, thin silicon waveguide thickness (400 nm/220 nm) and an adiabatic taper in both the III–V and silicon waveguide. A single ring resonator is integrated inside the laser cavity allowing very simple wavelength tuning. Such a combination allows us to demonstrate a single wavelength laser with 45mA threshold at 20°C, more than 8 nm tuning range and a side mode suppression ratio (SMSR) larger than 40 dB over the tuning range. The maximum power coupled to a lensed fiber is 0 dBm at 20 °C, while the total output power from the laser itself is around 10 dBm. The laser linewidth is measured to be 1.7MHz.

Figure 3: (a) Schematic view of the single wavelength microring-based laser structure; (b) Super-imposed laser spectra for several values of the heating power, at 20°C and a laser injection current of 80 mA.
Figure 3: (a) Schematic view of the single wavelength microring-based laser structure; (b) Super-imposed laser spectra for several values of the heating power, at 20°C and a laser injection current of 80 mA.

Other people involved:

PhD thesises

Publications

    International Journals

  1. K. Van Gasse, Z. Wang, S. Uvin, B. De Deckere, J. Mariën, L. Thomassen, G. Roelkens, Ka-band to L-band frequency down-conversion based on III-V-on-silicon photonic integrated circuits, CEAS Space Journal, p.1-11 (2017).
  2. A. Abbasi, B. Moeneclaey, J. Verbist, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, G.-H. Duan, G. Roelkens, G. Morthier, Direct and electro-absorption modulation of a III-V-on-silicon DFB laser at 56 Gbps, IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, p.1501307 (7 pages) (2017)  Download this Publication (959KB).
  3. A. Abbasi, L. Abdollahi Shiramin, B. Moeneclaey, J. Verbist, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, D. Van Thourhout, G. Roelkens, G. Morthier, III-V-on-Silicon C-band High-Speed Electro-Absorption Modulated DFB Laser , Journal of Lightwave Technology, p.10.1109/JLT.2017.2743044 (2017)  Download this Publication (879KB).
  4. K. Ma, M. Shahin, A. Abbasi, G. Roelkens, G. Morthier, Demonstration of InP-on-Si Self-Pulsating DFB Laser Diodes for Optical Microwave Generation, IEEE Photonics Journal, 9(4), p.1504608 (8 pages) (2017)  Download this Publication (902KB).
  5. Z. Wang, K. Van Gasse, Valentina Moskalenko, Sylwester Latkowski, Erwin Bente, B. Kuyken, G. Roelkens, A III-V-on-Si ultra dense comb laser, Light: Science & Applications, 6, p.e16260 (2017)  Download this Publication (2.1MB).
  6. A. Abbasi, S. Keyvaninia, J. Verbist, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, F. Lelarge, G-H. Duan, G. Roelkens, G. Morthier, 43 Gb/s NRZ-OOK Direct Modulation of a Heterogeneously Integrated InP/Si DFB Laser, Journal of Lightwave Technology (invited), 35(6), p.1235-1240 (2017).
  7. S. Dhoore, G. Roelkens, G. Morthier, III-V-on-silicon three-section DBR laser with over 12 nm continuous tuning range, Optics Letters, 42(6), p.1121-1124 (2017)  Download this Publication (2.2MB).
  8. S. Dhoore, L. Li, A. Abbasi, G. Roelkens, G. Morthier, Demonstration of a discretely tunable III-V-on-silicon sampled grating DFB laser, IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, 28(21), p.2343-2346 (2016)  Download this Publication (2.2MB).
  9. S. Dhoore, S. Uvin, D. Van Thourhout, G. Morthier, G. Roelkens, Novel adiabatic tapered couplers for active III-V/SOI devices fabricated through transfer printing, Optics Express, 24(12), United States, p.12976-12990 (2016)  Download this Publication (1.6MB).
  10. A. Abbasi, C. Spatharakis, G. Kanakis, N. Sequeira André, H. Louchet, A. Katumba, J. Verbist, H. Avramopoulos, P. Bienstman, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, G. Roelkens, G. Morthier, High Speed Direct Modulation of a Heterogeneously Integrated InP/SOI DFB Laser, Journal of Lightwave Technolgy (invited), 34(8), p.1683-1687 (2016)  Download this Publication (695KB).
  11. A. Abbasi, J. Verbist, J. Van kerrebrouck, F. Lelarge, G. H. Duan, x. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, G. Roelkens, G. Morthier, 28 Gb/s Direct Modulation Heterogeneously Integrated C-band InP/SOI DFB Laser, Optics Express, 23(20), p.26479-26485 (2015)  Download this Publication (2.5MB).
  12. L. Shen, V. Calzadilla, C. Wullems, Y.Jiao, A. Millan Meija, H. Ambrosius, J. van der Tol, G. Roelkens, M.K. Smit, Low-optical-loss and low-resistance Ag/Ge based ohmic contacts to n-type InP for membrane based waveguide devices, Optical Materials Express, 5(2), p.393-398 (2015)  Download this Publication (1.1MB).
      International Conferences

    1. M. Shahin, A. Abbasi, K. Ma, G. Roelkens, G. Morthier, Towards High Modulation Bandwidth using Two-Section InP-on-Si DFB Laser Diodes, 22nd Annual Symposium of the IEEE Photonics Benelux Chapter 2017, Netherlands, (2017).
    2. M. Shahin, K. Ma, A. Abbasi, G. Roelkens, G. Morthier, Demonstration of Self-Pulsating InP-on-Si DFB Laser Diodes, 30th Annual Conference of the IEEE Photonics Society (IPC), United States, p.473-474 (2017)  Download this Publication (757KB).
    3. A. Abbasi, L. Abdollahi Shiramin, B. Moeneclaey, J. Verbist, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, D. Van Thourhout, G. Roelkens, G. Morthier, 2x56 Gbps Electroabsorption Modulated III-V-on-silicon DFB Laser, European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Sweden, p.paper M.2.C.3 (3 pages) (2017)  Download this Publication (415KB).
    4. S. Dhoore, G. Roelkens, G. Morthier, Towards fast tunable InP-on-SOI laser diodes, European Semiconductor Laser Workshop 2017, Denmark, p.1-2 (2017).
    5. A. Abbasi, B. Moeneclaey, J. Verbist, X. Yin, J. bauwelinck, G. Roelkens, G. Morthier, 56 Gb/s Direct Modulation of an InP-on-Si DFB Laser Diode, Optical Interconnect Conference, United States, (2017)  Download this Publication (392KB).
    6. A. Abbasi, H. Chen, J. Verbist, X.Yin, Y. Bauwelinck, G. Roelkens, G. Morthier, Chirp Managed Optical Link based on a Directly Modulated InP/Si DFB Laser, European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO) 2017, Netherlands, p.T5.5 (2017)  Download this Publication (577KB).
    7. S. Dhoore, G. Roelkens, G. Morthier, Heterogeneously Integrated III-V/SOI DBR Laser with Over 7 nm Continuous Wavelength Tuning Range, European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO, Netherlands, p.paper M5.2 (2 pages) (2017)  Download this Publication (560KB).
    8. S. Dhoore, G. Roelkens, G. Morthier, Discretely tunable III-V/SOI SG-DFB laser, Proceedings Symposium IEEE Photonics Society Benelux, Belgium, p.39-42 (2016)  Download this Publication (6.8MB).
    9. K. Van Gasse, Z. Wang, S. Uvin, J. Marien, L. Thomassen, G. Roelkens, Ka-to-L-band frequency down-conversion using a micro-photonic IIIV-on-silicon mode-locked laser and Mach-Zehnder modulator, International Conference on Space Optics, France, (2016)  Download this Publication (392KB).
    10. S. Dhoore, L. Li, A. Abbasi, G. Roelkens, G. Morthier, Demonstration of a discretely tunable III-V/SOI sampled grating distributed feedback laser, IEEE Photonics Conference, 29th Annual Conference of the IEEE Photonics Society, United States, (2016)  Download this Publication (7.2MB).
    11. A. Abbasi, J. Verbist, X. Yin, F. Lelarge, G. H. Duan, J. Bauwelinck, G. Roelkens, G. Morthier, Enhanced Modulation Bandwidth of Heterogeneously Integrated III-V-on-silicon DFB Laser for 40 Gb/s NRZ-OOK Direct Modulation, International Semiconductor Laser Conference (ISLC), Japan, (2016)  Download this Publication (2.1MB).
    12. G. Morthier, A. Abbasi, M. Shahin, J. Verbist, G. Roelkens, High speed modulation of InP membrane DFB laser diodes, Proceedings of ICTON 2016 (invited), Italy, (2016)  Download this Publication (477KB).
    13. Z. Wang, Marianna Pantouvaki, G. Morthier, Clement Merckling, Joris Van Campenhout, D. Van Thourhout, G. Roelkens, Heterogeneous Integration of InP Devices on Silicon, the 28th International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM) (invited), Japan, p.paper ThD1-1 (2016)  Download this Publication (379KB).
    14. G. Morthier, A. Abbasi, J. Verbist, S. Keyvaninia, X. Yin, F. Lelarge, G.H. Duan, J. Bauwelinck, G. Roelkens, High-speed directly modulated heterogeneously integrated InP/Si DFB laser, European Conference on Optical Communication (invited), Germany, p.148-150 (2016)  Download this Publication (1.2MB).
    15. A. Abbasi, C. Spatharakis, G. Kanakis, N. S. André, H. Louchet, A. Katumba, J. Verbist, X. Yin, J. Bauwelinck, H. Avramopoulos, G. Roelkens, G. Morthier, PAM-4 and Duobinary Direct Modulation of a Hybrid InP/SOI DFB Laser for 40 Gb/s Transmission over 2 km Single Mode Fiber, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2016, United States, p.M2C.6 (2016)  Download this Publication (479KB).
    16. A. Abbasi, J. Verbist, J. Van kerrebrouck, F. Lelarge, G. H. Duan, G. Roelkens, G. Morthier, 28 Gb/s Direct Modulation Heterogeneously Integrated InP/Si DFB Laser , ECOC, Spain, p.paper We.2.5.2 (2015)  Download this Publication (420KB).
    17. S. Uvin, S. Keyvaninia, M. Tassaert, Z. Wang, X. Fu, S. Latkowski, J. Marien, L. Thomassen, F. Lelarge, G. Duan, G. Lepage, P. Verheyen, J. Van Campenhout, E. Bente, G. Roelkens, 1.7 kHz RF linewidth III-V-on-silicon mode-locked laser, 12th Intenational Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), Canada, p.WF2 (2015)  Download this Publication (281KB).
    18. Z. Wang, A. Malik, B. Tian, M. Muneeb, Clement Merckling, Marianna Pantouvaki, Yosuke Shimura, Roger Loo, Joris Van Campenhout, D. Van Thourhout, G. Roelkens, Near/Mid-Infrared Heterogeneous Si Photonics, The 9th International Conference On Silicon Epitaxy And Heterostructures (invited), (2015)  Download this Publication (3.5MB).
        National Conferences

      1. S. Dhoore, A. Abbasi, J. Zhang, K. Van Gasse, M. Shahin, G. Roelkens, G. Morthier, InP-on-Silicon Lasers for Optical Communication, FEA Research Symposium, Belgium, (2017).

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