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Full Name: Model extraction to enable first-time right photonics integrated circuit design

Duration: 1/9/2016-31/12/2019 (Finished)


  • Luceda Photonics
  • Caliopa - Huawei
  • UGent - INTEC - PRG
  • UGent - INTEC - SUMO


  • The current design tools for Photonic Integrated Circuit (PIC) designers have fairly primitive models for the photonic components in comparison with the models available to electronic integrated circuit designers. However, the functioning and yield of photonic ICs is very dependent on variations in their fabrication process (more so than in electronic ICs). As a result, PIC design is far from first-time-right and requires many time consuming and costly iterations instead.
  • With this project, the consortium wants to help advance the PIC design toolset by addressing the following major challenges:
    • Lack of accurate photonic component models which incorporate process variability, enabling reliable simulations of complex and elaborate PICs without unwieldy computational loads.
    • Lack of a methodology and software tools for automated extraction of the parameters of such models from test data.
  • The goal of this project is to address the challenges by working towards the following main objectives:
    • Characterize and model the location dependent aspect and the stochastic correlation length of the manufacturing process variability.
    • Develop “white box” models (including non-idealities) and stochastic “black box” models for basic photonic IC components which incorporate the process variability model.
    • Develop a methodology and the supporting software tool which can extract the parameters of a PIC component given a simulated or measured dataset and the model description (white or black box) while incorporating the process variability model.
    • Develop analysis tools based on Luceda’s existing circuit/ssytem simulator, which can handle process variability (with and without spatial correlation) and corner simulations (Monte-Carlo).
  • The circuit simulator will be used for validation of the research in this project and will not yet be optimized for computational time and/or memory usage.

People involved

Research topics involved

Publications in the framework of this project (25)

    International Journals

  1. Y. Xing, J. Dong, U. Khan, W. Bogaerts, Capturing the effects of spatial process variations in silicon photonic circuits, ACS Photonics, doi:10.1021/acsphotonics.2c01194 (2022)  Download this Publication (14.6MB).
  2. D. Spina, Y. Ye, D. Deschrijver, W. Bogaerts, T. Dhaene, Complex Vector Fitting toolbox: a software package for the modeling and simulation of general linear and passive baseband systems, Electronics Letters, 57(10), p.404-406 doi:10.1049/ell2.12116 (2021)  Download this Publication (792KB).
  3. Y. Xing, J. Dong, U. Khan, W. Bogaerts, Correlation between Pattern Density and Linewidth Variation in Silicon Photonics Waveguides, Optics Express, 28(6), p.7961-7968 doi:10.1364/OE.388149 (2020)  Download this Publication (2.2MB).
  4. Y. Xing, M. Wang, A. Ruocco, J. Geessels, U. Khan, W. Bogaerts, A Compact Silicon Photonics Circuit to Extract Multiple Parameters for Process Control Monitoring, OSA Continuum, 3(2), p.379-390 doi:10.1364/OSAC.383711 (2020)  Download this Publication (1.3MB).
  5. W. Bogaerts, Y. Xing, U. Khan, Layout-Aware Variability Analysis, Yield Prediction and Optimization in Silicon Photonic Circuits, IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, 25(5), p.paper 6100413 doi:10.1109/JSTQE.2019.2906271 (2019)  Download this Publication (8.1MB).
  6. Y. Ye, M. Wang, D. Spina, W. Bogaerts, T. Dhaene, Time-domain characterization of photonic integrated filters subject to fabrication variations, Journal of Lightwave Technologies, 37(21), p.5561-5570 doi:10.1109/JLT.2019.2933311 (2019)  Download this Publication (2.2MB).
  7. Y. Ye, D. Spina, D. Deschrijver, W. Bogaerts, T. Dhaene, Time-domain compact macromodeling of linear photonic circuits via complex vector fitting, Photonics Research, 7(7), p.771-782 doi:10.1364/PRJ.7.000771 (2019)  Download this Publication (2.2MB).
  8. U. Khan, Y. Xing, Y. Ye, W. Bogaerts, Photonic integrated circuits design in a foundry+fabless ecosystem, Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics (invited), 25(5), p.paper 8201014 doi:10.1109/JSTQE.2019.2918949 (2019)  Download this Publication (3.6MB).
  9. Y. Ye, D. Spina, W. Bogaerts, T. Dhaene, Baseband Macromodeling of Linear Photonic Circuits for Time-Domain Simulations, Journal of Lightwave Technologies, 37(4), doi:10.1109/JLT.2019.2893545 (2019)  Download this Publication (1.1MB).
  10. Y. Xing, J. Dong, S. Dwivedi, U. Khan, W. Bogaerts, Accurate Extraction of Fabricated Geometry Using Optical Measurement, Photonics Research, 6 (11), p.1008-1020 doi:10.1364/PRJ.6.001008 (2018)  Download this Publication (3.5MB).
  11. Y. Ye, D. Spina, Y. Xing, W. Bogaerts, T. Dhaene, Numerical modeling of a linear photonic system for accurate and efficient time-domain simulations, Photonics Research, 6(6), p.560-573 doi:10.1364/PRJ.6.000560 (2018)  Download this Publication (2.5MB).
  12. A. Kaintura, D. Spina, I. Couckuyt, L.Knockaert, W. Bogaerts, T. Dhaene, A Kriging and Stochastic Collocation ensemble for uncertainty quantification in engineering applications, Engineering with Computers, p.1-15 doi:10.1007/s00366-017-0507-0 (2017)  Download this Publication (2.5MB).
      International Conferences

    1. U. Khan, M. Fiers, Y. Xing, W. Bogaerts, Experimental phase-error extraction and modelling in silicon photonic arrayed waveguide gratings , Photonics West (OPTO), 11285, United States, p.1128510 doi:10.1117/12.2544645 (2020)  Download this Publication (6.9MB).
    2. Y. Ye, D. Spina, D. Deschrijver, W. Bogaerts, T. Dhaene, Efficient time-domain modeling and simulation of passive bandpass systems, 2019 International Conference on Electromagnetics in Advanced Applications (ICEAA), Spain, p.0992-0996 doi:10.1109/ICEAA.2019.8879314 (2019)  Download this Publication (316KB).
    3. U. Khan, Y. Xing, W. Bogaerts, Parameter extraction, variability analysis and yield prediction of the photonic integrated circuits., Advanced Photonics Congress (invited), United States, p.paper IM3A.2 (2019)  Download this Publication (780KB).
    4. W. Bogaerts, Y. Xing, Y. Ye, U. Khan, J. Dong, J. Geessels, M. Fiers, D. Spina, T. Dhaene, Predicting Yield of Photonic Circuits With Wafer-scale Fabrication Variability, 2019 IEEE MTT-S International Conference on Numerical Electromagnetic and Multiphysics Modeling and Optimization (NEMO) (invited), United States, p.1-3 doi:10.1109/NEMO.2019.8853660 (2019)  Download this Publication (1MB).
    5. Y. Xing, M. Wang, A. Ruocco, J. Geessels, U. Khan, W. Bogaerts, Extracting Multiple Parameters from a Compact Circuit for Performance Evaluation, European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO 2019), Belgium, p.W.Po1.9 (2019)  Download this Publication (1.8MB).
    6. U. Khan, Y. Xing, A. Ribeiro, W. Bogaerts, Extracting Coupling Coefficients of Directional Couplers, European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO 2019), Belgium, p.W.Po.1.8 (2019)  Download this Publication (1MB).
    7. U. Khan, Y. Xing, W. Bogaerts, Designing large-scale photonic integrated circuits, OPTICS 2019 (invited), Italy, p.F.IV.1 (2019).
    8. U. Khan, Y. Xing, W. Bogaerts, Effect of fabrication imperfections on the performance of silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide gratings, Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Symposium of the IEEE Photonics Benelux Chapter, Belgium, p.7-10 (2018)  Download this Publication (818KB).
    9. Y. Xing, J. Dong, U. Khan, Y. Ye, D. Spina, T. Dhaene, W. Bogaerts, From Parameter Extraction, Variability Models to Yield_Prediction, Latin America Optics & Photonics Conference (invited), Peru, p.paper W3E.1 (3 pages) doi:10.1364/LAOP.2018.W3E.1 (2018)  Download this Publication (1.5MB).
    10. Y. Ye, D. Spina, Y. Xing, W. Bogaerts, T. Dhaene, Fast and Accurate Time-Domain Simulation of Passive Photonic Systems, IEEE International Conference on Electromagnetics in Advanced Applications, Colombia, p.396-399 doi:10.1109/ICEAA.2018.8520462 (2018)  Download this Publication (363KB).
    11. Y. Xing, J. Dong, U. Khan, W. Bogaerts, Hierarchical Model for Spatial Variations of Integrated Photonics, IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, Mexico, p.91-92 (WD4) doi:10.1109/GROUP4.2018.8478733 (2018)  Download this Publication (4.4MB).
    12. W. Bogaerts, U. Khan, Y. Xing, Layout-Aware Yield Prediction of Photonic Circuits, IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, Mexico, p.p93-93 (WD5) doi:10.1109/GROUP4.2018.8478734 (2018)  Download this Publication (2.7MB).
    13. A. Li, Y. Xing, R. Van Laer, R. Baets, W. Bogaerts, Extreme Spectral Transmission Fluctuations in Silicon Nanowires Induced by Backscattering, IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics 2016, China, p.paper FB4 (2 pages) doi:10.1109/GROUP4.2016.7739068 (2016)  Download this Publication (2.4MB).