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Authors: E.M.P. Ryckeboer, X. Nie, A. Subramanian, D. Martens, P. Bienstman, S. Clemmen, S. Severi, R. Jansen, G. Roelkens, R. Baets
Title: CMOS-compatible silicon nitride spectrometers for lab-on-a-chip spectral sensing
Format: International Conference Proceedings
Publication date: 4/2016
Journal/Conference/Book: Photonics Europe 2016, Proc. SPIE 9891, Silicon Photonics and Photonic Integrated Circuits V, 98911K (invited)
Location: Brussels, Belgium
Internal Reference: [N-1946]
DOI:
Download: Download this Publication (1.3MB) (1.3MB)

Abstract

We report on miniaturized optical spectrometers integrated on a photonic integrated circuit (PIC) platform based on silicon nitride waveguides and fabricated in a CMOS-compatible approach. As compared to a silicon- on-insulator PIC-platform, the usage of silicon nitride allows for operation in the visible and near infrared. Furthermore, the moderately high refractive index contrast in silicon-nitride photonic wire waveguides provides a valuable compromise between compactness, optical loss and sensitivity to phase error. Three generic types of on-chip spectrometers are discussed: the arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) spectrometer, the echelle grating or planar concave grating (PCG) spectrometer and the stationary Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) spectrometer. Both the design as well as experimental results are presented and discussed. For the FTS spectrometer a specific design is described in detail leading to an ultra-small (0.1 mm2) footprint device with a resolution of 1 nm and a spectral range of 100nm. Examples are given of the usage of these spectrometers in refractive index biosensing, absorption spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy.


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