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Authors: M. Galarza, K. De Mesel, S. Verstuyft, D. Fuentes, C. Aramburu, M. Lopez-Arno, I. Moerman, P. Van Daele, R. Baets
Title: Mode-expanded 1.55-um InP-InGaAsP Fabry-Perot lasers using ARROW waveguides for efficient fiber coupling
Format: International Journal
Publication date: 12/2002
Journal/Conference/Book: IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics
Volume(Issue): 8(6) p.1389-1398
Download: Download this Publication (646KB) (646KB)

Abstract

We report on a new concept for InGaAsP-InP 1.55-/spl mu/m lasers with integrated spot-size converters based on antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides (ARROWs). The mode expanders consist of a tapered active region on top of a fiber-matched passive vertical ARROW waveguide. The large fundamental leaky mode with its low propagation loss makes ARROW waveguides useful for fiber coupling functions and avoids typical growth-related problems as encountered with traditional designs. The tapers exhibit a low transformation loss and narrowed far-field emission patterns (10.4/spl deg//spl times/22/spl deg/) and reduce the coupling loss to standard single-mode fibers from 8 to 2.6 dB. We also present the design and the results obtained with a relaxed ARROW design with thinner ARROW layers to reduce the overall layer stack thickness considerably, without affecting the fiber-coupling performance. The antiresonant effect has also been used for the lateral confinement of the fiber-matched mode. This feature makes the presented spot-size transformer as simple to fabricate as a standard waveguide, only requiring a planar growth step and a single conventional etch process. The fabricated tapers exhibit a low transformation loss and minimum far-field divergence angles of 13.8/spl deg//spl times/30.8/spl deg/, reducing the coupling loss to a standard single-mode fiber from 8 to 4 dB. We also analyze by simulation two variants of the concept proposed in this work, including a taper structure for a buried waveguide, which are expected to show better performance. Simulation results show fiber-coupling efficiencies as low as 2.4 and 1.1 dB and reduced far-field divergence angles as low as 7.2/spl deg//spl times/14/spl deg/ and 7.2/spl deg//spl times/9/spl deg/ for both variants.

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